Approximately 61,100 years ago (Barrows et al., 2019) an iron meteorite measuring ~100150 feet (4666 m) in diameter (solid body) to 217 feet in diameter (tight swarm of fragments) weighing at least 100,000 tons (100 million kg, up to 1.2 billion kg) and conjectured to have been infalling along a southwest to northeast trajectory (Rhinehart, 1958; Artemieva and Pierazzo, 2011), was catastrophically disrupted at an altitude of 8.5 miles forming a pancake-like debris cloud measuring ~400 feet across (Passy and Melosh [Separated Fragments model], Chyba et al., 1993 [Pancake model], Melosh and Collins, 2005; Artemieva, 2006; Artemieva and Pierazzo, 2007, 2009 [SOVA hydrocode model]). This mass of interacting fragments is believed to have struck the Earth at an angle of 45° at an estimated velocity of at least 33,500 mph (1516 km/s, possibly up to 20 km/s) after undergoing considerable ablation and melting.
The resulting 2.5 megaton explosion created a crater one mile in diameter and 600 feet deep with a rim over 150 feet high. The event excavated 175 million metric tons of rock (Kring, 2006) from 40 m deep in the case of melt material, and up to 100 m deep in the case of non-melt material (Artemieva and Pierazzo, 2011). This created an organized inverted stratum with Coconino Sandstone overlying Toroweap Limestone, overlying Kaibab Limestone, overlying units of the Moenkopi Formation (Hagerty et al., 2010). The total energy released by the entire meteorite during its descent from ~9 miles altitude to the surface was calculated to have been as high as 6.5 MT (equivalent to 6.5 million metric tons of TNT; 1 MT = 4.184 × 1015 J) including an intense airblast near the ground. As a result, the initial projectile was ejected and dispersed by the plume in the form of solids (2630%), melt (4550%), and vapor (2029%) (Artmieva and Pierazzo, 2011).
After melting/ablation of the meteoroid, ~30% (solid body) to 70% (fragmented swarm) of the mass survived as fragments that fell over an area ~6 miles in diameter centered on the crater, and many were heated to temperatures high enough to alter the Thomson (Widmanstätten) structure of the meteorites of the rim location. The fragments were rapidly cooled in less than two minutes forming the ironcarbon alloy martensite. The shock waves created pressures inside the fragments greater than 600 kilobars (60 GPa) which transformed graphite into microscopic diamonds and lonsdaleite. All of the diamond-bearing fragments have been recovered from the crater rim with the exception of one plains specimen, and all rim specimens are strongly shocked. The remaining plains specimens are only lightly to moderately shocked and contain no diamonds. This is consistent with other evidence supporting the theory that the diamonds were formed upon impact with the Earth. The graphite particles present in the meteorite were transformed by the compression waves into droplets of liquid carbon and then frozen into tiny diamonds when decompressed by the rarefaction wave. The intense shock forces also acted on the local Coconino sandstone to produce coesite and stishovite, establishing the first discovery in nature of these two high-pressure silica polymorphs (both of which were discovered and named by Dr. Edward Ching-Te Chao, the latter named after the Russian physicist Sergei Stishov who first synthesized the mineral in a high-pressure laboratory experiment). Although the metal veins present within Canyon Diablo graphite nodules were previously attributed to the shock forces generated by the meteoroid impact on Earth, a new analysis by Hilton et al. (2020) has determined that they have an ancient age (see the graphite nodule page for further details).
By relating known relationships among noble gas isotope ratios, the cosmic ray exposure age can be ascertained for the Canyon Diablo object. The oldest isochron provides evidence for a collision in space 540 m.y. ago, while a secondary isochron of 170 m.y. is suggestive of a more recent collision. One fragment shows evidence of a third collision 15 m.y. ago. More than half of all iron meteorites found on Earth have exposure ages of between 500 and 600 m.y. Most H chondrites, representing the largest group of stony meteorites found on Earth, suffered intense shock and reheating about 520 m.y. ago. These events might represent the breakup of one or more sizable asteroids with diameters of at least 80 km and masses of 1015 tons. The asteroids can be associated with others and grouped into about 30 families having similar orbits. Each family could represent the debris from the breakup of individual asteroids. Four asteroid families that are in Mars-crossing orbits are prime candidates for supplying the Earth with the meteorites in the 500600 m.y. cosmic ray age group.
The cosmic ray exposure ages of the Canyon Diablo fragments can be correlated with the 3He and 59Ni isotope abundances in the fragments to determine the depth at which individual fragments resided in the main body before Earth impact. This depth was correlated with the location at which each specimen had been collected, either on the rim or on the surrounding plains. The rim specimens originally resided at a depth of ~36 feet (<3 m) within the projectiles rear surface area, while about half of the plains specimens had been closer to the surface of the projectile. The conclusion can be made that the more deeply buried fragments experienced greater shock, the shock produced diamonds from existing graphite, and these heavily shocked fragments (shrapnel) were ejected with low velocity to land on or near the rim. The mm-sized molten metallic spherules have a low content of the cosmogenic nuclide 59Ni, which is consistent with this melt material originating from the inner portion of the projectile.
Some studies have calculated that all of the surviving material was likely derived from the rearmost 6 feet of the trailing hemisphere of the impactor, all of which constitute only about 15% of the original mass; these fragments were located in areas such as corners, humps, edges, or projections where cancellation between primary and reflected shock waves occurred. Using these parameters, of the more than 300,000 tons comprising the main mass, about 30,00045,000 tons escaped melting/vaporization. More recent hydrocode modeling by Artemieva and Pierazzo (2007) indicates that over 50% of the impactor remained solid. Only about 2,000 tons can be accounted for today in meteorite fragments, shale balls, metallic spherules, and other oxidation products. Isolated meteorite fragments account for only 30 tons of this material, much of it likely being transported from the site in ancient times, although fragments have only been described dating from ~1860.
The early history of the Canyon Diablo asteroid has also be described. Based on W- and Sm-isotopic data obtained by Schulza et al. (2012), accretion of the IAB parent body occurred ~2 m.y. after Solar System formation. Silicate melting and metal segregation to form a core occurred ~3 m.y. later. During the next 0.51.5 b.y. the iron cooled through the temperature range of 700400°C at a rate of about 1°C per m.y., creating the Thomson (Widmanstätten) structure of crystal formation. This cooling rate would be consistent with the asteroidal body being between 250 and 500 km in diameter, which is between one-third and two-thirds the size of the largest known asteroid, Ceres.
In a study utilizing the short-lived 182Hf182W chronometer, with a correction applied for neutron capture by 182W due to galactic cosmic rays, Hunt et al. (2018) calculated the timing of metalsilicate separation for all genetically-related IAB irons to be 6.0 (±0.8) m.y. after CAIs. These irons include at least the MG and sLL subgroup and possibly the sLM subgroup, as well as the ungrouped Caddo County (Udei Station grouplet) and Livingston (Algarrabo duo). Based on the constraints provided by the timing of metal segregation, they modeled the early history of the 120(+)-km-diameter IAB parent body as outlined in the following diagram:
Diagram credit: Hunt et al., EPSL, vol. 482, p. 497 (2018, open accesslink)
'Late metalsilicate separation on the IAB parent asteroid: Constraints from combined W and Pt isotopes and thermal modelling'
In a subsequent study, Hilton and Walker (2020) used Campo del Cielo, Canyon Diablo, and Nantan to calculate an average µ182W value (no CRE-correction was required) of 295 (±3). This value is consistent with a previous study and is presumed to be correct for the IAB-MG irons. Given this value and the 180Hf/184W ratio, a metalsilicate segregation age for the IAB-MG parent body was determined to be between 5.3 (±0.4) m.y. and 13.8 (±1.4 m.y.) after CAIs. They realized that if the latter age is correct, additional heating by impacts would be required to supplement that produced by radiogenic 26Al. Due to the uncertainties in both the Hf/W ratio and the size of the IAB-MG parent body, the accretion age could only be poorly constrained. However, Hilton and Walker (2020) demonstrated that when the accretion ages of other meteorite groups are coupled with their µ97Mo values, the relative timing of accretion for the IAB-MG parent body can be inferred to be ~3 m.y. after CAIs (see diagrams below).
click on diagram for a magnified view
Diagrams credit: Hilton and Walker, EPSL, vol. 540 #116248 (2020)
'New implications for the origin of the IAB main group iron meteorites and the isotopic evolution of the noncarbonaceous (NC) reservoir'
Dey et al. (2019) made use of 17O and ε54Cr values for several irons and their associated silicates/oxides to investigate i) if each iron and its associated phases originated on a common parent body (i.e., an endogenous mixture of core and mantle vs. an exogenous mixture through impact), and ii) if any genetic connection exists between the irons and other meteorite groups (e.g., IAB with winonaites, IIE with H chondrites, and Eagle Station pallasites with CK chondrites). Three IAB irons were used in the study, and it was demonstrated on an OCr coupled diagram that although the ε54Cr values for the iron component plot in the winonaite field, the silicate component plots in a distinct region at higher values (see diagram below). From these results they ascertained that the IAB silicated irons formed through an impact-generated mixture comprising iron from a winonaite-like parent body and silicate from an unrelated and otherwise unsampled parent body. It may also be reasonably inferred that winonaites derive from a separate parent body (Goldstein et al., 2021). Incorporation of the silicates into the FeNi-metal host took place at a depth greater than 2 km, allowing time for a Thomson (Widmanstätten) structure to develop during a long duration cooling phase. Fractional crystallization occurred in some large molten metal pools, followed by very slow cooling, which produced the broad range of features found in certain IAB meteorites (e.g., silicate-poor, graphitetroilite-rich inclusions and extremely high Ni contents). Other results from their study can be found on the Miles and Eagle Station pages.
ε54Cr vs. Δ17O for Irons and Pallasites
click on diagram for a magnified view
Diagram credit: Dey et al., 50th LPSC, #2977 (2019)
To learn more about the relationship between this and other iron chemical groups, click here. The specimen of Canyon Diablo shown above is a shrapnel fragment that was shaped during the violent impact event.